Environment literally means surrounding and everything that affect an organism during its lifetime is collectively known as its environment. In another words “Environment is sum total of water, air and land interrelationships among themselves and also with the human being, other living organisms and property”. It includes all the physical and biological surrounding and their interactions. Environmental studies provide an approach towards understanding the environment of our planet and the impact of human life upon the environment. Thus environment is actually global in nature, it is a multidisciplinary subject including physics, geology, geography, history, economics, physiology, biotechnology, remote sensing, geophysics, soil science and hydrology etc.
Scope of Environmental Science is a multidisciplinary science whose basic aspects have a direct relevance to every section of the society. Its main aspects are:
Conservation of nature and natural resources.
Conservation of biological diversity.
Control of environmental pollution.
Stabilization of human population and environment.
Social issues in relation to development and environment.
Development of non-polluting renewable energy system and providing new dimension to nation’s security.
Environment study deals with the analysis of the processes in water, air, land, soil and organisms which leads to pollute or degrade environment. It helps us for establishing standard for safe, clean and healthy natural ecosystem. It also deals with important issues like safe and clean drinking water, hygienic living conditions and clean and fresh air, fertility of land, healthy food and development. Sustainable environmental law, business administration, environmental protection, management and environmental engineering are immerging as new career opportunities for environment protection and managements.
Caspian Geomatics Ltd has a good experience in applying the GIS to various aspects of the environment. Complex environmental challenges increasingly demand sophisticated solutions. GIS is a powerful tool for environmental data analysis. It allows better viewing and understanding physical features and the relationships that influence in a given critical environmental condition. On completion of data analysis GIS helps in planning and managing the environmental hazards and risks. In order to plan and monitor the environmental problems, the assessment of hazards and risks becomes the foundation for planning decisions and for mitigation activities. GIS – Applications in Environmental Management outlines the ways that GIS is fulfilling the need of humanity to better manage, protect, and preserve the environment. Caspian Geomatics Ltd focused on different applicable areas with special regards to: air pollution, climate modifications in different scales, urban environment, biodiversity, change detection, soil erosion, resource management, coastal zone management etc.
GIS, not surprisingly, has a very important role to play in environmental monitoring. GIS is ideally suited as a tool for the presentation of data derived from distributed measurement stations.
GIS technology is an effective tool for studying the environment, reporting on environmental Phenomena, and modeling how the environment is responding to natural and man-made factors. Environmental managers, scientists, planners, and many others use GIS to visualize data about
Understanding relationships within the environment is essential for creating environmental impact reports, designing sustainable management plans, prioritizing project areas and funding, and informing government and the public about environmental concerns. In the following case studies, implemented GIS to analyze ecological footprints; improve watershed resource management; and respond to climate change, pollution, and more.
Plant and animal species, as well as the ecosystems they form, all have their own geographical or spatial ranges over which they are found. Similarly, different types of human economic activity are distributed about the globe in different spatial patterns. The sources and flows of environmental pollutants, as well as patterns of environmental change and damage, are also distributed unevenly through space over a continuum of scales. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) allow spatial data, such as these, to be handled and analyzed using computers. Spatial data that allow GIS to be used so effectively in environmental studies.